V-자 grammar (request, approval, demand, assumption) | Mastering Korean Grammar

우리 같이 영화 보러 가자.

In this lesson, we're going to learn 'Verb-자' which can be used in 4 ways.

If you want to watch the lesson in Korean with English subtitles, please click the link below.



1. Usage

● '-자' attaches after a verb stem.

● '-자' is used when talking about requests, approval, demands, and assumptions.

● '-자' is mainly used in spoken language and informal situations.

● '-자' is used when talking to close friends such as friends or peers.

● Similar expression is '-읍시다/ㅂ시다' which is used in official or formal situations.


2. Explanation with example sentences '-자'

①  -자 Request (청유): when asked to do something together. In this case, it's similar to 'let's' in English.

✏︎ 미소: 이번 주말에 뭐 할까? 
             (What do we do this weekend?)
✏︎ 나나: 우리 같이 영화 보러 가자. (가다 + 자)
             (Let's go see a movie together.)
  • Here, '가자' is a combination of the verb '가다' and '-자.'
  • Nana wants to watch a movie with Miso.
  • So, she invites Miso to see a movie together.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - 영화 보러 가자
  • When asking to do something together, the first person plural subject '우리' is mainly used. 
  • Also, '같이' or '함께' is often used. 
↔︎ Negative form of '-자' (부정형): V-지 말자 (-지 말다 + 자)
  • Now let's look at the negative expression of 'Verb-자.'
  • The expression that negates 'verb-자' is 'verb-지 말자'.
  • '-지 말자' is a combination of the verb '-지 말다' and '-자.'

✏︎  우리 여행 가자. (가다 + 자) ↔︎ 우리 여행 가지 말자. (가다 + 지 말자)
      (Let's go on a trip. ↔︎ Let's not go on a trip.)
  • '가지 말자' is a combination of the verb '가다' and '-지 말자.'
✏︎  점심은 밖에 나가서 먹자. (먹다 + 자) ↔︎ 점심은 밖에 나가서 먹지 말자. (먹다 + 지 말자)
      (Let's go out and eat lunch. ↔︎ Let's not go out and leat lunch.)
  • '먹지 말자' is a combination of the verb '먹다' and '-지 말자.'

 -자 Approval (승낙): accepting another's request.

✏︎ 미소: 우리 이번 주말에 캠핑하러 갈까? 
             (Shall we go camping this weekend?)
✏︎ 나나: 그래, 그러자. (그렇다 + 자)
             (Yes, let's do that.)
  • Here, '그러자'' is a combination of the verb '그렇다' and '-자.'
  • Miso suggests that Nana go camping.
  • And Nana replies that she likes it.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - 그러자,  캠핑 가자 (Yes. let's go camping.)
Let's look at more examples of '-자 approval.'

✏︎ 딸: 엄마, 우리 점심으로 햄버거 먹으면 안 돼요?
          (Mom, can we have burgers for lunch?)
✏︎ 엄마: 그래, 햄버거 그러자. (먹다+ 자)
         (Okay. Let's have hamburgers.)
  • Here, '먹자' is a combination of the verb '먹다' and '-자.'
  • The daughter asks her mother if she can eat a hamburger for lunch. Ask for permission.
  • The mother responds that she likes it.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - 햄버거 먹자 (let's eat hamburgers.)

③ -자 Demand (요구): to ask for something.

✏︎ 나나: 미소야, 바빠? 잠깐 나 좀 보자. (보다 + 자) 
            (Miso, are you busy? See me for a second. )
✏︎ 미소: 응. 그래.
            (Yes, sure.)
  • Here, '보자' is a combination of the verb '보다' and '-자.'
  • Nana asks Miso to see her for a second.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - 보자

✏︎ 나나: 야, 팥빙수 너만 먹지 말고 나도 좀 먹자. (먹다 + 자)
             (Hey, don't just eat patbingsu (팥빙수) by yourself, let me have some too.)
✏︎ 미소: 미안. 너무 맛있어서. 너도 좀 먹어. 
             (Sorry. It's so delicious. You can have some too.)

* 팥빙수 (patbingsu): red bean shaved ice

  • Here, '먹자' is a combination of the verb '먹다' and '-자.'
  • Nana asks Miso to eat patbingsu too.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - - 나도 좀 먹자 (Let me have some.)

④ -자 Assumption (가정): to assume something.

✏︎ 나나: 우리가 달에 있다고 생각해 보자. (보다 + 자)
             (Let's suppose we are on the moon.)
  • Here, '보자' is a combination of the verb '보다' and '-자.'
  • Are we on the moon now? - No. We are not.
  • But suppose you think about it. - Imagine we are on the moon. Suppose we are on the moon.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb. - 생각해 보자 (let's think, let's suppose.)

✏︎ 미소: 생일인데 선물도 못 사줬네.
            (It's your birthday and I couldn't even buy you a present.)
✏︎ 나나: 괜찮아. 밥 사줬으니까, 선물은 받은 셈 치자. (치다 + 자) 
             (It's okay. Since you bought me a meal, let's consider I received a present.)
 (※ 치다 (consider): To think or recognize something as a certain thing or to have a certain trait.)

  • Here, '치자' is a combination of the verb '치다' and '-자.'
  • For reference, the verb '치다' here means 'to think or recognize something as a certain thing or to have a certain trait.'
  • So did Nana get a present? - No. She did not.
  • But Miso bought a meal. So, Nana considers she receives a present from Miso.
  • Suppose she received the present.
  • In this case, you can use '-자' after the verb.

3. Grammar tips '-자'

① -자: Adjectives X, Some adjectives O:

● '동사-자' cannot be used with 'adjectives'. 
✏︎ 키가 작자. (Let's be short.) (작다 + 자) (X)

● But, it can be used with some adjectives such as  '행복하다, 건강하다, 침착하다' and so on.
✏︎ 우리 모두 행복하자. (행복하다 + 자) (O) (Let's all be happy.)
✏︎ 새해에는 모두 건강하자. (건강하다 + 자) (O) (Let's all be healthy in the new year.)
✏︎ 이럴 때일수록 침착하자. (침착하다 + 자) (O) (Let's stay calm in times like this.)

② '-자' cannot be used with '-시-, -았/었/했-, -겠-' (X)

● -시-: 주말에 영화를 보시자. (X) (보다 + 시 + 자)
           (Let's watch a movie on the weekend.)
  • '보시자' is a combination of '보다’' and '-시-' and '-자.' -  It is wrong.

● -았/었/했-:지난 주말에 영화를 보았자. (X) (보다 + 았 + 자)
  • '보았자' is the combination of the verb '보다' and '-았-' and '-자'. -  It is wrong.
                    
● -겠-: 주말에 영화를 보겠자. (X) (보다 + 겠 + 자)
  • '보겠자' is a combination of '보다’' and '-겠-' and '-자.' -  It is wrong.
You cannot use ‘-시-, -았/었/했-, -겠-’ in front of ‘-자.'

4. Combination Information '-자 grammar'

● When a verb stem has the final consonant, or not,  '-자' is used.

① Final consonant O: 먹다 + 자 → 먹자

② Final consonat X: 가다 + 자 → 가자


5. Practice '-자 grammar'

1. 주말에 같이 밥 (먹다).
   (Let's have a meal together on the weekend.)

2. 나 공부하잖아. 조용히 좀 (하다).
    (I'm studying. Be quiet.)

3. 우리가 복권에 당첨됐다고 생각해 (보다).
    (Let's assume that we won the lottery.)

Answers

→ 주말에 같이 밥 먹자. (먹다 + 자)
→ 나 공부하잖아. 조용히 좀 하자. (하다 + 자)
→ 우리가 복권에 당첨됐다고 생각해 보자. (보다 + 던)

6. Quiz (Pdf Download) -자 grammar

★  문제: ‘-자’를 사용해서 다음과 같이 문장을 완성해 보세요.

(보기) 우리 주말에 영화 (보자) → 우리 주말에 영화 보자.

1. 수업 끝나고 커피 마시러 (가다).
2. 너 그 책 좀 그만 보고 나 좀 줘라. 나도 그 책 좀 (읽다). 
3. 이번에 네 덕 좀 (보다).
4. 우리 산책할까? - 그래, (그러다).
5. 우리 통화했으니까 만나 셈 (치다).  
6. 나 수학책 안 가져왔어. 미안하지만, 책 좀 (빌리다). 
7. 다음 주가 시험인데, 우리 같이 시험공부 (하다).

(In English)
1. Let's get some coffee after class.
2. Stop reading the book and give it to me. Let me read the book, too.
3. Let's get benefit from you this time.
4. Shall we take a walk? - All right, let's do that.
5. Let's consider we met since we talked on the phone. 
6. I didn't bring a math book. So, let me borrow your book.
7. We have an exam next week, so let's study together.

★ Answers

1. 수업 끝나고 커피 마시러 가자. (가다 + 자)
2. 너 그 책 좀 그만 보고 나 좀 줘라. 나도 그 책 좀 읽자. (읽다 + 자)
3. 이번에 네 덕 좀 보자. (보다 + 자)
4. 우리 산책할까? - 그래, 그러자. (그러다 + 자)
5. 우리 통화했으니까 만난 셈 치자. (치다 + 자)
6. 나 수학책 안 가져왔어. 미안하지만 책 좀 빌리자. (빌리다 +자)
7. 다음 주가 시험인데, 우리 같이 시험공부 하자. (하다 + 자) 

✔︎ Quiz Korean Grammar -자 PDF download





#베이직코리안 #Basickorean #basickoreanBK #koreangrammarwithbasickorean #한국어문법 #koreangrammar #자 #grammar #koreagrammarquiz #koreagrammarquizPDF #learnkorean #learnkoreangrammar #자grammar

이 블로그의 인기 게시물

1500 Essential TOPIK Korean Vocabulary for Beginners - Free Videos & PDFs

Korean Grammar 125: V-아다 주다/어다 주다/해다 주다 (vs 아 주다/어 주다/해 주다) Learn Korean

A/V-을수록/ㄹ수록 (feat. 으면 을수록) Korean Grammar 167 | Learn Korean | Korean Grammar with Basic Korean

한국어 배우기 | 한국어 문법 75: V-아서/어서/해서