Learn Korean | Korean Grammar 127: Indirect Quotation A-다고 하다/-았다고 하다/-겠다고 하다/-을 거라고 하다

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In this lesson, we will look at the expression 'A-다고 하다' that is used to quote a declarative sentence that ends with an adjective. Let's learn 'indirect quotation' in Korean 'A-다고 하다.'

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⭐️ 한국어 문법 127: A-다고 하다, -았다고 하다, -겠다고 하다, -을 거라고 하다

미소 씨가 오늘은 바쁘다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she is busy today.)

1. Example Sentences of Indirect Quotation

1) Present Tense
- Miso: 바빠요. (I am busy.) → 미소 씨가 바쁘다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she is busy.) 2) Past Tense
- Miso: 바빴어요. (I was busy) → 미소 씨가 바빴다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she was busy.)
3) Future/Speculation
- Miso: 바쁘겠어요. (I must/will be busy.) → 미소 씨가 바쁘겠다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she must/will be busy.)
- Miso: 바쁠 거예요. (I will be busy.) → 미소 씨가 바쁠 거라고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she will be busy.)

※ In terms of tense, when you quote a sentence indirectly, use the tense of the sentence you want to quote as it is. (Tense remains the same.)

2. Usage '-다고 하다

1) 다 (ending) + 고 (particle) + 하다 (verb - instead of the verb ‘하다’, you can also use ‘말하다, 그러다, and so on.') 2) Indirect quotation (간접 인용/간접 화법)
- '-다고 하다' is used after an adjective stem when a quoted sentence is a declarative sentence and it ends with an adjective.
- It is used when the speaker quotes another person's words or writings (indirectly) from the speaker's point of view.
3) For the present tense, use -다고 하다.
4) For the past tense, use -았/었/했다고 하다.
5) For the Future/Speculation tense, use - 겠다고 하다 or -을/ㄹ 거라고 하다

3. A-다고 하다 (the present, declarative sentence)

-'-다고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is a declarative, present tense and ending with an adjective.

✎ 미소: “오늘은 바빠요.” (I am busy.) (→adjective, present, declarative sentence)
→ 나나: 미소 씨가 오늘은 바쁘다고 했어요. (바쁘다 + 다고 하다)

- '-다고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is a declarative, present tense and ending with an adjective. - For example, “오늘은 바빠요.” (Today, I'm busy.) - Nana wants to quote it indirectly. - Then let's look at the end of the sentence. This sentence ends with ‘바빠요' which indicates it is an adjective, present tense, and declarative sentence. - Then, you can quote indirectly by adding '-다고 하다' after the adjective '바쁘다' which is the basic form of '바빠요.' - And when you quote indirectly and write, remove quotation marks.

- Then, you can say - 미소 씨가 오늘은 바쁘다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she is busy today.)
- Here '바쁘다고 했어요' is a combination of the adjective 바쁘다 and '다고 하다'. - When the sentence you want to quote ends with an adjective, is in the present tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'adjective' followed by '-다고 하다'.

✎ 미소: “지하철에 사람이 많아요. (adjective, present, declarative sentence)
→ 나나: 미소 씨가 지하철에 사람이 많다고 했어요. (많다 + 다고 하다)

- Miso says: “지하철에 사람이 많아요.” (“There are a lot of people on the subway.”)
- This sentence ends with ‘많아요.' which indicates it is an adjective, present tense, and declarative sentence.
- Then, you can quote indirectly by adding '-다고 하다' after the adjective '많다' which is the basic form of '많아요.' 
- And when you quote indirectly and write, remove quotation marks.

- Then you can say - 미소 씨가 지하철에 사람이 많다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said, there are a lot of people on the subway.)
- Here '많다고 했어요' is a combination of the adjective 많다 and '다고 하다'.
- When the sentence you want to quote ends with an adjective, is in the present tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'adjective' followed by '-다고 하다'.

★ Combination Information: A-다고 하다 (adjective, present, declarative sentence)

- It attaches after an adjective stem.
- Whether an adjective stem has the final consonant or not, '-다고 하다' is used.
1) Final Consonant O&X: -다고 하다
- 작다 + 다고 하다 → 작다고 하다 - 크다 + 다고 하다 → 크다고 하다

4. A-았/었/했다고 하다 (past, declarative sentence)

- '-았/었/했다고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is declarative, past tense and ending with an adjective.

✎ 미소: “어제는 바빴어요.” (→ 형용사, 과거, 평서문) → 나나: 미소 씨가 어제는 바빴다고 했어요. (바쁘다 + -았다고 하다)

- Miso said “어제는 바빴어요.” (Yesterday, I was busy.) - It is talking about yesterday. It is the past tense. - This sentence ends with ‘바빴어요.' - '바빴어요' indicates that it is an adjective, past tense, and a declarative sentence. - Then you can add '-았다고 하다' after the adjective '바쁘다' which is the basic form of '바빴어요.' - And when you quote indirectly and write, remove quotation marks.
- So, you can say - 미소 씨가 어제는 바빴다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said that she was busy yesterday.)
- Here '바빴다고 했어요' is a combination of the adjective 바쁘다 and '-았다고 하다'. - If the sentence you want to quote ends with an adjective, is in the past tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'adjective' followed by '-았다고 하다'. - As you can see, Nana speaks in 'past tense' just as Miso speaks in 'past tense'. - Use the tense of the sentence you want to quote as it is.

★ Combination information of A-았/었/했다고 하다 (adjective, past, declarative)

- It attaches after an adjective stem.
- 'Adjective-았/었/했다고 하다' is a combination of an adjective stem, the past tense form '-았/었/했-', and '-다고 하다.' 1) Vowel ㅏ, ㅗ: -았다고 하다
- When a vowel in an adjective stem is 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ', '-았다고 하다' is used. - 좋다 + 았다고 하다 → 좋았다고 하다 2) Other Vowels: -었다고 하다
- When a vowel in an adjective stem' is other vowels, ‘-었다고 하다' is used. - 싫다 + 었다고 하다 → 싫었다고 하다 3) 하다: -했다고 하다
- When an adjective ends in '하다', '-했다고 하다' is used instead of '하다'. - 피곤하다 + 했다고 하다 → 피곤했다고 하다

5. A-겠다고 하다 (Future/Speculation, declarative)

- '-겠다고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is a declarative, future/speculation tense and ending with an adjective.

✎ Miso: “내일은 바쁘겠어요.” (→ adjective, future/speculation, delcarative)
→ Nana: 미소 씨가 내일은 바쁘겠다고 했어요. (바쁘다 + -겠다고 하다)

- Miso said “내일은 바쁘겠어요.” (I must/will be busy.)
- This sentence ends with ‘바쁘겠어요' which' indicates that it is an adjective, future/speculation tense, and a declarative sentence.
- Then, you can quote indirectly by adding '-겠다고 하다' after the adjective '바쁘다' which is the basic form of '바쁘겠어요.' 
- And when you quote indirectly and write, remove quotation marks.

- Then you can say - 미소 씨가 내일은 바쁘겠다고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she must/will be busy tomorrow.)
- Here '바쁘겠다고 했어요' is a combination of the adjective 바쁘다 and '-겠다고 하다'.
- If the sentence you want to quote ends with an adjective, is in the future/speculation tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'adjective' followed by '-겠다고 하다'.
- As you can see, Nana speaks in '-겠-future/speculation tense' just as Miso speaks in '-겠-'.
- Use the tense of the sentence you want to quote as it is.

★ Combination Information of A-겠다고 하다 (adjective, future/speculation, declarative)

- It attaches after an adjective stem. 1) Final Consonant O&X: -겠다고 하다
- Whether an adjective stem has the final consonant or not, '-겠다고 하다' is used for both cases. - 작다 + 겠다고 하다 → 작겠다고 하다 - 크다 + 겠다고 하다 → 크겠다고 하다

6. A-ㄹ/을 거라고 하다 (미래/추측, 펑서문)

-'A-(으)ㄹ 거라고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is a declarative, future/speculation tense and ending with an adjective.

✎ Miso: “내일은 바쁠 거예요.” (→ adjective, future/speculation, declarative)
→ Nana: 미소 씨가 내일은 바쁠 거라고 했어요. (바쁘다 + -ㄹ 거라고 하다)

- Miso says: “내일은 바쁠 거예요.” (I'll be busy tomorrow.)
- This sentence ends with ‘바쁠 거예요' which indicates that it is an adjective, future/speculation tense, and a declarative sentence.
- Then, you can quote indirectly by adding '-ㄹ 거라고 하다' after the adjective '바쁘다' which is the basic form of '바쁠 거예요.' 
- And when you quote indirectly and write, remove quotation marks.
- Then you can say  - 미소 씨가 내일은 바쁠 거라고 했어요. (lit. Miso said she will be busy tomorrow.)
- Here '바쁠 거라고 했어요' is a combination of the adjective 바쁘다 and '-ㄹ 거라고 하다'.
- If the sentence you want to quote ends with an adjective, is in the future/speculation tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'adjective' followed by ‘-ㄹ 거라고 하다.'
- As you can see, Nana speaks in ‘ㄹ 거 - future/speculation tense' just as Miso speaks in ‘ㄹ 거.'
- Use the tense of the sentence you want to quote as it is.

Combination Information of A-ㄹ/을 거라고 하다 (형용사, 과거, 평서문)

- '을/ㄹ 거라고 하다' is a combination of an adjective stem, the future/speculation form ‘을 거/ㄹ 거' and '-라고 하다.'
- It attaches after an adjective stem.
1) Final Consonant O: -을 거라고 하다
- When an adjective stem has the final consonant, ‘-을 거라고 하다' is used. - 작다 + 을 거라고 하다 → 작을 거라고 하다 2) Final Consonant X: -ㄹ 거라고 하다
- When an adjective stem does not have the final consonant, '-ㄹ 거라고 하다' is used. - 크다 + ㄹ 거라고 하다 → 클 거라고 하다

7. Practice

✎ 미소 씨가 옷이 크다고 했어요. (크다 + 다고 하다)               (lit. Miso said the clothes are big.) ✎ 나나 씨가 어렸을 때는 키가 작았다고 했어요. (작다 + 았다고 하다)          (lit. Nana said she was short when she was young.) ✎ 지안 씨가 이러다 약속에 늦겠다고 했어요. (늦다 + 겠다고 하다)
    (lit. Jian said we're going to be late for an appointment.) ✎ 미소 씨가 내일은 따뜻할 거라고 했어요. (따뜻하다 + ㄹ 거라고 하다)     (lit. Miso said it will be warm tomorrow.)

8. A Short Conversation of '다고 하다'

- Nana: 미소 씨, 이번에 송지효가 나오는 ‘마녀 식당으로 오세요.’ 봤어요?
- Miso: 아니요. 아직 안 봤는데요. 친구가 재미있다고 해서 이번 주말에 볼까 해요.나나 씨도 같이 볼래요?
The grammar we've learned is ‘재미있다고 해서,’ '재미있다고 해서' is a combination of the adjective '재미있다' and '-다고 하다'.

(Translation)
- Nana: Miso, did you see Song Ji Hyo's "Come to the Witch's Restaurant"?
- Miso: No. I haven't seen it yet. (lit.) My friend said it is fun, so I'm going to watch it this weekend. Nana, would you like to watch it with me?

Thank you. #베이직코리안 #한국어문법 #Basickorean #간접화법 #간접인용 #다고하다 #indirectquotationinKorean

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