Learn Korean | Korean Grammar 129: V-았다고 하다/었다고 하다/했다고 하다 (indirect quotation)

Hello, welcome to Basic Korean. In this lesson, we’re going to learn ‘V-았다고 하다/었다고 하다/했다고 하다' which is used to indirectly quotes a sentence whose type of sentence is 'declarative sentence', ends with 'verb', and the point of time is 'the past tense'. 

Let's learn 'indirect quotation' in Korean 'V-았다고 하다/었다고 하다/했다고 하다.'

If you want to watch this lesson in Korean with English subtitles, please click the link below.

Korean grammar lesson 129: https://youtu.be/D4tUT9WePJQ


⭐️ Korean Grammar 129: V-았/었/했다고 하다

‘미소 씨가 점심을 먹었다고 했어요.

1. Short Conversation

(점심시간)

- 지안: 미소 씨는 같이 안 먹어요?

- 나나: 네, 미소 씨는 점심을 먹었다고 했어요. 우리끼리 먹으면 될 것 같아요.


(in English)

(Lunch Time)

- Jian: Doesn't Miso eat together?

- Nana: No, Miso said she had lunch. I think we can eat by ourselves.


→ The grammar we will learn today is '먹었다고 했어요.'


2. Usage

- Indirect Quotation: It is used when the speaker quotes another person's words or writings (indirectly) from the speaker's point of view.

- '-았/었/했다고 하다' attaches after a verb stem.

- '-았/었/했-' is an ending of a word that indicates an event or action has occurred in the past.

- '-았/었/했다고 하다' is used to quote a sentence that is declarative, past tense and ending with a verb.

- Instead of the verb ‘하다’, you can also use ‘말하다, 그러다, and so on.'


3. Example Sentences

✎ 미소: “점심을 먹었어요.” (→ verb, past tense, declarative sentence)

→ Indirect Quotation: 미소 씨가 점심을 먹었다고 했어요. (먹다 + 었다고 하다)

(In English) 

Miso: “I had lunch.”

→ Indirect quotation: lit. Miso said she had lunch.


- When you look at ‘먹었어요’, it ends with a verb, it is a declarative sentence and the point of speaking is in the past.

- If you want to quote indirectly, you can add '-었다고 하다' after the verb '먹다' which is the basic form of '먹었어요.'

- And when writing, delete the double quotation marks.

- Then, you can say - 미소 씨가 점심을 먹었다고 했어요.

- Here '먹었다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '먹다' and '-었다고 하다'.

- If the sentence you want to quote ends with a verb, is in the past tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'verb' followed by '-었다고 하다'.

- And if you look at the tense, the tense of Miso's speech is the past tense, and the tense of the indirect quotation is also the past tense.

- So you can say '점심을 먹었다고 했어요.'


✎ 미소: “창문을 닫았어요.” (→ verb, past tense, declarative sentence)

→ Indirect Quotation: 미소 씨가 창문을 닫았다고 했어요. (닫다 + 았다고 하다)

(In English)

Miso: I closed the window.

→ Indirect quotation: lit. Miso said she closed the window.


- When you look at ‘닫았어요’, it ends with a verb, it is a declarative sentence, and the point of speaking is in the past.

- If you want to quote indirectly, you can add '-았다고 하다' after the verb '닫다' which is the basic form of '닫았어요.'

- And when writing, delete the double quotation marks.

- Then you can say ‘미소 씨가 창문을 닫았다고 했어요.’

- Here '닫았다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '닫다' and '-았다고 하다'.

- If the sentence you want to quote ends with a verb, is in the past tense, and is a declarative sentence, you can say it by combining the 'verb stem' followed by '-았다고 하다'.

- And if you look at the tense, the tense of Miso's speech is the past tense, and the tense of the indirect quotation is also the past tense.

- Then you can say ‘창문을 닫았다고 했어요.’


4. Combination Information

- ‘-았다고 하다/었다고 하다/했다고 하다’ attach a verb stem.

(1) Vowel ㅏ, ㅗ: -았다고 하다

- When a vowel in a verb stem is 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ','-았다고 하다' is used.

- 닫다 + 았다고 하다 → 닫았다고 하다

(The vowel in '닫' is 'ㅏ', so '-았다고 하다' is used.)


(2) Other vowels: -었다고 하다

- When a vowel in a verb stem is 'other vowels' other than 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ,' ‘-었다고 하다' is used.

- 먹다 + 었다고 하다 → 먹었다고 하다

(The vowel in '먹' is 'ㅓ', so '-었다고 하다' is used.)


(3) 하다 → 했다고 하다

- When a verb ends in '하다', change '하다' to '했다고 하다.'

- 공부하다 + 했다고 하다 → 공부했다고 하다

(‘공부하다’ ends with '하다', so '-했다고 하다' is used.)

5. Practice

✎ 미소: “책을 읽었어요.” (I read a book.) 

→ 미소 씨가 책을 읽었다고 했어요. (읽다 + 었다고 하다)

- '읽었다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '읽다' and '-었다고 하다'.


✎ 나나: “어제 열심히 공부했어요.” (I studied hard yesterday.)

→ 나나 씨는 어제 열심히 공부했다고 했어요. (공부하다 + 했다고 하다)

- '공부했다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '공부하다' and '-했다고 하다.'


✎ 미소: 서울에 살았어요. (I lived in Seoul.)

→ 미소 씨는 서울에 살았다고 했어요. (살다 + 았다고 하다)

- '살았다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '살다' and '-았다고 하다'.


6. A short conversation 

- 나나: 미소 씨, 지안 씨가 늦네요. 어디쯤 왔는지 연락해 볼래요?

- 미소: 아까 전화해봤는데, 거의 다 도착했다고 했어요. 아마 조금 있으면 도착할 거예요.


→ 도착했다고 했어요. (도착하다 + 했다고 하다)

- '도착했다고 했어요' is a combination of the verb '도착하다' and '-했다고 하다'.


(in English)

- Nana: Miso, Jian is late. Can you contact her where she is?

- Miso: I called earlier, she said she was almost here. She will probably arrive in a minute.


✔︎Quiz for ‘V-았다고 하다/었다고 하다/했다고 하다’ 📥 : https://drive.google.com/file/d/1rY8Kajdk7NBO4mYmG3r47JzbDan0SnR_/view?usp=sharing

[Quiz] Let’s quote the below sentences.

(보기)  미소: “점심을 먹었어요.” → 미소 씨가 점심을 먹었다고 했어요.

(Miso: “I had lunch.” → Miso said she had lunch. )

------------------------------------------------------------

1. 나나: “낮잠을 잤어요.” → 나나 씨가 __________ 했어요.

(Nana: “I took a nap.” → Nana said she took a nap.)


2. 미소: “지난 주말에 공부를 열심히 했어요.” → 미소 씨가  ___________ 그랬어요.

(Miso: “I studied hard last weekend.” →  Miso said she studied hard last weekend.)


3. 영준: “어제 아파서 집에서 쉬었어요.” → 영준 씨가  ___________ 했어요

(Youngjun: “I rested at home yesterday because I was sick.” 

→ Youngjun said he rested at home yesterday because he was sick.)


4. 나나: “친구와 영화를 봤어요.”→ 나나 씨가  _______________ 했어요.

(Nana: “I watched a movie with my friend.” 

→ Nana said she watched a movie with her friend.)


5. 미소: “그 사람을 사랑했어요.” → 미소 씨가 ____________ 했어요.

(Miso: “I loved him.” → Miso said she loved him.)


Answer

1. 나나 씨가 낮잠을 잤다고 했어요. (자다 + 았다고 하다)

2. 미소 씨가 지난 주말에 공부를 열심히 했다고 그랬어요. (하다 + 했다고 그러다)

3. 영준 씨가 어제 아파서 집에서 쉬었다고 했어요. (쉬다 + 었다고 하다)

4. 나나 씨가 친구와 영화를 봤다고 했어요. (보다 + 았다고 하다)

5. 미소 씨가 그 사람을 사랑했다고 했어요. (사랑하다 + 했다고 하다)


✔︎ More videos on Korean Grammar: http://bit.ly/basickoreangrammar 


Thank you~!


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